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Historia de Wando II - Historia

Historia de Wando II - Historia

Wando II

(Remolcador No. 17: dp. 575 (n.); 1. 123'6 1/2 "; b. 26'8", dr.
11'6 '' (media); cpl. 23; una. 2 3 pares; cl. Wando)

El segundo Wando (Remolcador No. 17) fue colocado el 14 de junio de 1915 por el Astillero de la Armada de Charleston (S.C.) botado el 7 de marzo de 1916, y encargado el 3 de abril de 1917, con el contramaestre J. W. Bettens al mando.

Wando permaneció en Charleston hasta el 15 de abril, cuando se puso en marcha hacia aguas de Nueva Inglaterra y, con el ferry Wave a remolque, navegó hacia el norte, a través de Lynnhaven Roads, VA., Y New York Navy Yard, llegando a Newport seis días después. Al mudarse a Boston, Massachusetts, a través del Canal de Cape Cod, poco después, el remolcador remolcó una barcaza de carbón al New York Navy Yard el 25 y 26 de abril y posteriormente remolcó el crucero Salem desde Filadelfia al Boston Navy Yard antes de regresar. vía Filadelfia, a Charleston el 19 de mayo, remolcando el barco torpedero Barney.

Después de breves períodos de servicio en Georgetown, Carolina del Sur, y Jacksonville, Florida, Wando zarpó hacia Hampton Roads VA., Y fondeó con la Flota en el río York el 11 de junio. Durante el verano, el remolcador realizó varias tareas de servicios públicos, principalmente remolcando objetivos y encendedores; cambiar las balsas objetivo y plantar boyas, fuera de Tangier Sound y Yorktown, VA. Durante ese tiempo, ayudó al acorazado en tierra Louisiana (Acorazado No. 19) el 6 de julio.

A mediados de agosto, Wando se sometió a reparaciones en el Norfolk Navy Yard y allí recibió un "equipo de barrido de minas". Partió de Norfolk el 23 de agosto con rumbo a aguas de Nueva York y llegó a la "Base 10" —Port Jefferson, Long Island— en la mañana del día 25. Desde allí, el remolcador se trasladó a New London, Connecticut, donde recibió equipo adicional de barrido de minas de Baltimore. En la noche del 8 de septiembre, Wando embarcó al Capitán Reginald R. Belknap, Comandante, Mine Force, y lo transportó a Newport, Rhode Island, donde llegó más tarde esa noche. Posteriormente, el remolcador realizó funciones de boyas y cuidado de redes frente al buque ligero Cornfield del 10 al 13 de septiembre.

Wando regresó a New London el 16 y al día siguiente instaló más equipos de barrido de minas. Nuevamente transportó al Capitán Belknap como pasajero, de New London a Newport, antes de dirigirse a Norfolk. Durante el resto de septiembre, Wando operó en "Base One", Tangier Sound, amarrando balsas objetivo, trabajando en amarres objetivo y realizando viajes breves para reparaciones o suministros en el Norfolk Navy Yard. Posteriormente, Wando permaneció en la región de Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound durante los meses de otoño y hasta el invierno.

Separada de su deber con la Fuerza Minera el 19 de noviembre de 1917, Wando reanudó sus operaciones con el Tren de la Flota del Atlántico. Sin embargo, continuó realizando las mismas tareas básicas, sirviendo como licitación de objetivos / redes y entregando correo y despachos hasta fines de marzo de 1918. Posteriormente, remolcó objetivos para acorazados que participaban en ejercicios de artillería en los terrenos de perforación del sur, frente a los cabos de Virginia, y luego colocó boyas en el Potomac River Torpedo Range, frente a la desembocadura del St. Mary's River.

Wando se desplegó en el Caribe por primera vez a principios de 1919. Partiendo de Norfolk el 6 de febrero de 1919, el remolcador llegó a la bahía de Guantánamo el 14 de febrero, con el pontón n. ° 23 a remolque. Desempeñó sus poco glamorosas funciones de servicio para la Flota, remolcando objetivos, mecheros, barcazas y entregando hombres y correo, en aguas cubanas (Bahía de Guantánamo, Bahía de Guacanamail y Bahía de Manzanillo) hasta el 17 de abril, cuando regresó a casa.

Al llegar a Nueva York el 18, Wando posteriormente se mudó a Hoboken, Nueva Jersey, donde se sometió a reparaciones durante los primeros días de mayo. Al regresar a Norfolk el 6 de mayo, Wando remolcó objetivos y realizó un servicio de utilidad general con el Atlantic Fleet Train hasta mediados de julio y luego operó en aguas frente a la parte norte de la costa este, fuera de Newport, New London y Nueva York. Permaneció en la ciudad de Nueva York del 10 de agosto de 1919 al 10 de enero de 1920.

En marcha hacia Norfolk el último día, Wando llegó allí al día siguiente, pero el 14, navegó hacia el sur hacia Charleston y llegó a ese puerto el 16. Separada del Tren de la Flota del Atlántico el 26 de enero de 1920, a Wando se le asignaron simultáneamente funciones como embarcación de patio en el Charleston Navy Yard, su tripulación se redujo a 14 hombres. Mientras estaba en servicio activo en Charleston, fue clasificada AT-17 el 17 de julio de 1920, durante la asignación de números de casco alfanuméricos a toda la flota.

Wando operó en el 6º Distrito Naval, en Charleston, hasta el 18 de abril de 1922, cuando fue desmantelada y puesta en reserva.

Recomisionado en Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California el 15 de marzo de 1933, Wando fue reclasificado el 27 de febrero de 1936 de un remolcador marítimo (AT) a un remolcador de puerto, YT-123. El 15 de abril de 1944, fue reclasificada nuevamente a un gran remolcador de puerto, YTB-123, una clasificación que llevó durante el resto de su servicio naval activo.

Asignada al 13 ° Distrito Naval después de su nueva puesta en servicio para operar en Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington, Wando realizó sus vitales pero no reconocidos servicios de remolcadores desde finales de la década de 1930 hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Finalmente, puesto fuera de servicio y fuera de servicio el 3 de julio de 1946, Wando fue entregado a la Administración de Transporte de Guerra de la Comisión Marítima para su eliminación. Su nombre fue eliminado de la lista de la Marina el 30 de diciembre de 1946, y fue adquirida por Puget Sound Tug and Barge Co. el 28 de abril de 1947.


Historia y patrimonio cultural n. ° 038

Antes del 1600: El desierto rodeado por varios ríos que fluyen dentro y alrededor de Lowcountry fue habitado por indios Tidewater durante miles de años antes de la llegada de los europeos. Todos eran hábiles cazadores y prosperaron gracias a la abundancia de la tierra y las aguas. Los nativos americanos utilizaron el Broad Path, que seguía el río Ashley, para comerciar con las tribus vecinas.

1600: Algunas tribus nativas americanas brindaron asistencia a los colonos ingleses mientras buscaban el área para construir asentamientos. Tribus como Wando, Etiwan, Kiawah y Sewee ayudaron a los ingleses a defenderse de las incursiones españolas. Se sabía que las tribus Stono y Kussoe amenazaban a los primeros colonos con ataques. Se establecieron granjas y granjas a lo largo de las orillas del río Ashley y en toda la zona.

1700: se establecieron más de 60 plantaciones entre los ríos Ashley y Cooper, como Accabee, Archdale, Belmont, Elms, Windsor, Marshlands, Oak Grove, White Hall, Turnbull y otros. Eliza Lucas Pinkney logró un gran progreso botánico y hortícola con la producción de seda e índigo, Phillipe Noisette, con el desarrollo de la rosa Noisette, de fama internacional, y Andre Michaux, el padre de la horticultura estadounidense, quien estableció un jardín botánico (cerca de lo que ahora es Av. Aviación) e introdujo nuevas plantas en la zona como camelias y mimosas.

Durante la Revolución Americana (1775-1783): The Broad Path se conoció como el Camino a Dorchester (ahora Dorchester Road), utilizado por las tropas británicas como el camino principal desde su Fuerte Dorchester británico hasta Charles Towne. El Quarter House Inn, en ese camino, se estableció como una guarnición británica.

1800: Las primeras líneas de ferrocarril se colocaron desde Charleston hasta el Área Norte, cerca de lo que ahora es Rivers Avenue. La agricultura y la explotación de madera eran vitales a principios del siglo XIX y la extracción de fosfato para su uso en fertilizantes creó un auge económico después de la Guerra Civil. Liberty Hill, el barrio más antiguo de la zona norte, fue establecido por libertos que compraron tierras y construyeron casas y granjas para sus familias alrededor de 1864. En 1898, se compraron dos plantaciones a lo largo del río Cooper para crear Chicora Park, diseñado por Olmstead Hermanos, como destino de un día para los ricos charlestonianos.

El E.P. Burton Lumber Co. operó en 5,000 acres en la década de 1890 entre la Base Naval de Charleston y Goose Creek. A medida que se despejó el área y se cortó la madera. Burton vendió la tierra. Para 1912, partes del tracto se habían vendido a Oakdene Cotton Compress, Texaco y Read Phosphate Co.

1900-1972: Chicora Park fue comprado por la Marina y Charleston Naval Yard se estableció en 1901. El Astillero contaba con el muelle y dique seco más grande de la Costa Este utilizado para la construcción y reparación naval antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial. El Astillero Naval y Naval La base se expandió aún más durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y permaneció activa hasta que se cerró en enero de 1996. Durante casi 100 años, Naval Yard impulsó la economía y el desarrollo de North Charleston como una nueva ciudad, inspirada en los principios de planificación de la era progresista.

El alcalde de Charleston, R. Goodwyn Rhett, encabezó un grupo de inversionistas que organizaron North Charleston Corp. y Filbin Corp. Después de comprar el terreno de Burton, WB Marquis de Olmsted Brothers Engineering Co. diseñó la ciudad propuesta. En 1914, North Charleston Development Corp se organizó para construir casas para el área. Los primeros residentes se mudaron allí el mismo año. Fue por esta época que evolucionó el término "North Charleston".

En 1925, North Charleston Corp y Filbin Corp. se habían reorganizado como Charleston Farms. Fue absorbido por North Charleston Co. en este año.

Tras el pánico financiero de 1929, Joseph Franc compró el control del holding. También compró 44 acres adicionales del terreno, incluido Park Circle.

Para 1930, solo había 2,000 residentes en el área norte y la nación estaba en una depresión. Sin embargo, West Virginia Pulp and Paper Co. se mudó al área creando muchos puestos de trabajo y la población residencial aumentó.

En 1934 se formó un Distrito de Servicios Públicos para brindar servicio al área con alumbrado público, agua, alcantarillado, eliminación de basura y protección contra incendios. También en 1934, la Administración Federal de Obras Públicas completó un centro comunitario y un gimnasio en la escuela secundaria North Charleston.

La población era entonces de más de 4.000. Creció rápidamente en 1940 a medida que se avecinaba la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En 1942, la población saltó a más de 18,000 cuando el Navy Yard aumentó su personal y el Ejército llevó allí su Puerto de Embarque. Las bases militares en North Charleston han traído prosperidad a la zona tanto en las guerras mundiales como en los conflictos de Corea y Vietnam.

Después de que terminó la Segunda Guerra Mundial, muchos militares continúan viviendo y trabajando en North Charleston, lo que permite a la comunidad industrial mantener su producción.

El área de North Charleston buscó convertirse en una ciudad ya en la década de 1940. Casper Padgett lideró uno de los primeros intentos de incorporación hace unos 36 años. El esfuerzo fracasó cuando los votantes revelaron su oposición al concepto ocho a uno.

A finales de la década de 1950, Arthur H. Burton dirigió otro grupo que esperaba reavivar el interés por la incorporación. Sin embargo, Burton encontró un gran obstáculo en la Constitución del estado de Carolina del Sur. La constitución requería que los votantes aprobaran una nueva ciudad, y el Área Norte no tenía eso.

Se requería una enmienda constitucional que permitiera a las ciudades incorporarse con una mayoría de votantes que van a las piscinas. Esta enmienda fue finalmente concedida en 1972.

North Charleston en 1961 intentó nuevamente incorporar y, anticipando, incluso eligió a un alcalde, F. C. Ott. Sin embargo, la respuesta positiva no fue suficiente.

El tercer esfuerzo de incorporación, en 1969, fue encabezado por el representante Robert W. Turner, el candidato sin oposición a la alcaldía de la nueva ciudad.

Fue después de este intento fallido que John E. Bourne tomó la lucha en 1971.

Bourne redujo el área de votación para la incorporación a cuatro distritos donde el interés de incorporación era alto y donde los votos generalmente se dirigían a los grupos. Los incorporadores sabían que si podían incorporar un área más pequeña, podrían establecer los procedimientos de anexión para el resto del Área Norte. Este esfuerzo hizo de North Charleston una ciudad.

1972: La ciudad de North Charleston se estableció como la novena ciudad más grande de Carolina del Sur el 12 de junio de 1972 con John E. Bourne, Jr. como primer alcalde. En diciembre, North Charleston se convirtió en la cuarta ciudad más grande de SC después de anexar la Base Naval, la Base de la Fuerza Aérea y el Aeropuerto Internacional de Charleston. En un año, la población de la ciudad había aumentado de 22.000 a 53.000.

1972-1982: El 3 de julio de 1975, la ciudad se convirtió en la tercera ciudad más grande del estado. El 12 de junio de 1982, North Charleston había crecido un 250 por ciento. Tenía $ 15 millones en inversiones de capital, $ 1,95 millones invertidos en parques e instalaciones recreativas y $ 2,28 millones en desarrollo económico.

1982-1996: La ciudad celebró la apertura de Northwoods Mall en 1986, este importante centro comercial minorista ayudó a promover North Charleston como líder estatal en ventas minoristas.

El 21 de septiembre de 1989 golpeó el huracán Hugo, causando más de $ 2.8 mil millones en daños al país bajo de Carolina del Sur. El impacto físico y económico fue devastador.

Bobby Kinard fue elegido segundo alcalde de North Charleston en 1991. Ken McClure asumió sus funciones como alcalde interino después de la renuncia del alcalde Kinard en 1994.

En 1993, el escuadrón de aviones C-17 Globemaster III se estableció en la Base de la Fuerza Aérea de Charleston, proporcionando apoyo militar en todo el mundo.

El Coliseo de North Charleston abrió sus puertas en 1993 y el equipo de hockey Stingrays de Carolina del Sur del ECHL comenzó a llamar a North Charleston su hogar.

El alcalde R. Keith Summey fue elegido en 1994 como el tercer alcalde de North Charleston. Ha sido reelegido durante cada elección desde 1994 y ahora cumple su cuarto mandato completo como alcalde.

La Base Naval y el Astillero de Charleston cerraron oficialmente en 1996, poniendo fin a casi 100 años de historia como el mayor empleador de trabajadores civiles en Carolina del Sur. Aproximadamente $ 1.4 mil millones de dólares de gastos anuales se perdieron debido al cierre.

1996-presente: Cientos de acres de tierra que componían la Base Naval y el Astillero de Charleston volvieron a la Ciudad de North Charleston después del cierre de la base. La industria y las empresas privadas comenzaron a celebrar contratos de arrendamiento de almacenes y oficinas.

El Centro de Artes Escénicas de North Charleston y el Centro de Convenciones del Área de Charleston abrieron sus puertas en 1999.

El desarrollo de 400 acres Center Pointe comenzó a principios de la década de 2000 y ahora incluye Wal-Mart, Sam's Club, Tanger Outlet Mall y otras tiendas minoristas circundantes y restaurantes de renombre nacional.

El Plan Comunitario de Noisette se inició en 2004 y promovió los esfuerzos de revitalización de North Charleston. Los líderes políticos y comunitarios, las empresas y los residentes del área comenzaron a abrazar el énfasis y la promoción de la preservación, la sostenibilidad, la recreación, la educación, el cuidado de la salud, el crecimiento cultural, proporcionando un ambiente social agradable y atrayendo nuevos empleos técnicos y ambientales.

El parque Riverfront de North Charleston se abrió oficialmente al público el 4 de julio de 2005, estableciendo un hermoso acceso a las vistas a lo largo del río Cooper con un gran lugar para espectáculos al aire libre y áreas de picnic. Más tarde se agregaron un muelle de pesca, un paseo marítimo y un sitio conmemorativo de la base naval.

North Charleston continúa liderando a Carolina del Sur en ventas minoristas, superando los $ 6 mil millones de dólares cada año.

Boeing Aircraft anunció en 2009 que North Charleston se convertiría en el nuevo hogar del centro de preparación de ensamblaje y entrega de aviones 787 Dreamliner, proporcionando miles de nuevos puestos de trabajo en un mercado mundial.

North Charleston ofrece la mayor cantidad de alojamientos hoteleros en el área; cada año se agregan muchos hoteles nuevos de 4 estrellas para satisfacer las necesidades de los visitantes.


Wando (Remolcador No. 17) fue colocado el 14 de junio de 1915 por el Charleston Navy Yard. Botado el 7 de marzo de 1916, fue comisionado el 3 de abril de 1917 con el contramaestre J. W. Bettens al mando.

Wando permaneció en Charleston Navy Yard hasta el 15 de abril de 1917, cuando se puso en marcha hacia aguas de Nueva Inglaterra y, con el transbordador USS Ola (YFB-10) a remolque, navegó hacia el norte, a través de Lynnhaven Roads, Virginia y New York Navy Yard en la ciudad de Nueva York, llegando a Newport, Rhode Island, el 21 de abril de 1917. Pronto se trasladó a Boston, Massachusetts a través del Canal de Cape Cod. a partir de entonces, remolcó una barcaza de carbón al Astillero de la Marina de Nueva York el 25 de abril y el 26 de abril de 1917 y posteriormente remolcó el crucero de exploración USS Salem (CL-3) desde Filadelfia, Pensilvania, al Boston Navy Yard antes de regresar, a través de Filadelfia, al Charleston Navy Yard el 19 de mayo de 1917, remolcando el barco torpedero USS Barney (TB-25).

Después de breves períodos de servicio en Georgetown, Carolina del Sur y Jacksonville, Florida, Wando navegó hacia Hampton Roads, Virginia, fondeó con la flota en el río York el 11 de junio de 1917. Durante el verano de 1917, el remolcador realizó varias tareas de servicios públicos, principalmente remolcando objetivos y encendedores, cambiando balsas de objetivos y plantando boyas, operando desde Tánger. Sound y Yorktown, Virginia. Durante ese tiempo, ayudó al acorazado USS en tierra Luisiana (Acorazado No. 19) el 6 de julio de 1917.

A mediados de agosto de 1917, Wando se sometió a reparaciones en el Norfolk Navy Yard y allí recibió un "equipo de barrido de minas". Partió de Norfolk, Virginia, el 23 de agosto de 1917, en dirección a aguas de Nueva York y llegó a la "Base 10" - Port Jefferson, Long Island, Nueva York - en la mañana del 25 de agosto de 1917. Desde allí se trasladó a New London, Connecticut, donde recibió equipo adicional de barrido de minas del USS Baltimore (C-3). En la tarde del 8 de septiembre de 1917, Wando embarcó al Capitán Reginald R. Belknap, Comandante, Mine Force y lo transportó a Newport, Rhode Island, donde llegó más tarde esa noche. Wando Posteriormente realizó funciones de boyas y redes frente al buque ligero Cornfield desde el 10 de septiembre de 1917 hasta el 13 de septiembre de 1917.

Wando Regresó a New London el 16 de septiembre de 1917 y al día siguiente instaló más equipos de barrido de minas. Volvió a transportar al capitán Belknap como pasajero, de New London a Newport, antes de dirigirse a Norfolk. Durante el resto de septiembre, Wando operado en "Base One", Tangier Sound, amarrando balsas objetivo, trabajando en amarres objetivo y haciendo breves viajes al Norfolk Navy Yard para reparaciones o suministros. Wando posteriormente permaneció en la región de Chesapeake Bay-Hampton Roads-Tangier Sound durante los meses de otoño de 1917 y hasta el invierno.

Separada de su deber con la Fuerza Minera el 19 de noviembre de 1917, Wando reanudó sus operaciones con el Tren de la Flota Atlántica. Sin embargo, continuó desempeñando las mismas tareas básicas, sirviendo como objetivo y licitación de red y entregando correo y despachos hasta finales de marzo de 1918. Posteriormente, remolcó objetivos para acorazados que participaban en ejercicios de artillería fuera de los terrenos de perforación del sur, frente a Virginia Capes y más tarde colocó boyas en el Potomac River Torpedo Range, frente a la desembocadura del St. Mary's River.

Wando desplegada en el Caribe por primera vez a principios de 1919. Partiendo de Norfolk el 6 de febrero de 1919, llegó a la Bahía de Guantánamo, Cuba, el 14 de febrero de 1919, con Pontón No. 23 a remolque. Desempeñó sus funciones de servicio poco glamorosas para la Flota (remolcando objetivos, mecheros y barcazas y entregando hombres y correo) en aguas cubanas en la bahía de Guantánamo, la bahía de Guacanayabo y la bahía de Manzanillo hasta el 17 de abril de 1919, cuando regresó a los Estados Unidos.

Al llegar a Nueva York el 18 de abril de 1919, Wando Posteriormente se trasladó a Hoboken, Nueva Jersey, donde se sometió a reparaciones durante los primeros días de mayo de 1919. Al regresar a Norfolk el 6 de mayo de 1919, Wando remolcó objetivos y realizó un servicio de utilidad general con el Atlantic Fleet Train hasta mediados de julio de 1919 y luego operó en aguas frente a la parte norte de la costa este de los Estados Unidos desde Newport, New London y New York. Permaneció en la ciudad de Nueva York desde el 10 de agosto de 1919 hasta el 10 de enero de 1920.

En marcha hacia Norfolk el 10 de enero de 1920, Wando Llegó allí al día siguiente pero, el 14 de enero de 1920, navegó hacia el sur rumbo a Charleston. al que llegó el 16 de enero de 1920. Despegado del Tren de la Flota del Atlántico el 26 de enero de 1920, Wando simultáneamente se le asignaron deberes como embarcación de patio en Charleston Navy Yard, su tripulación se redujo a 14 hombres. Mientras estaba en servicio activo en Charleston, fue clasificada AT-17 el 17 de julio de 1920, durante la asignación de números de casco alfanuméricos a toda la flota.

Wando operó en el 6º Distrito Naval, fuera del Charleston Navy Yard, hasta el 18 de abril de 1922, cuando fue desmantelada y puesta en reserva.

Wando volvió a entrar en servicio en el Mare Island Navy Yard en Vallejo, California, el 15 de marzo de 1933. Fue reclasificada el 27 de febrero de 1936 de un remolcador de alta mar (AT-17) a un remolcador de puerto, YT-123.

Asignado al 13o Distrito Naval después de su puesta en servicio nuevamente para operar en Puget Sound Navy Yard en Bremerton, Washington, Wando realizó sus vitales pero no reconocidos servicios de remolcadores desde finales de la década de 1930 hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El 15 de abril de 1944, fue reclasificada nuevamente a un gran remolcador de puerto, YTB-123, una clasificación que llevó durante el resto de su servicio naval activo.

Finalmente puesto fuera de servicio y fuera de servicio y el 3 de julio de 1946, Wando fue entregado a la Administración de Transporte de Guerra de la Comisión Marítima para su eliminación. Su nombre fue eliminado de la Navy List el 30 de diciembre de 1946 y fue adquirida por Puget Sound Tug and Barge Company el 28 de abril de 1947.

Este artículo incorpora texto del dominio público. Diccionario de buques de combate navales estadounidenses. La entrada se puede encontrar aquí.


Historia de Wando II - Historia

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La parroquia de St. Thomas también se creó en 1706, y la primera iglesia parroquial se construyó en 1708 en el cuello de tierra entre los ríos Wando y Cooper, a unas dos millas del pueblo de Wando, anteriormente conocido como Cainhoy. Sin embargo, Pompion Hill Chapel se construyó en 1703 en lo que se convirtió en la parroquia de St. Thomas. Dalcho la calificó como la primera iglesia construida en la provincia fuera de la ciudad de Charles Town. Investigaciones posteriores han indicado que la primera capilla en Goose Creek fue erigida algunos años antes de esto, quizás ya en 1680. La primera capilla en Pompion Hill fue erigida poco después de la llegada del reverendo Samuel Thomas, primer misionero a Carolina del Sociedad recién organizada de la Iglesia de Inglaterra para la Propagación del Evangelio en el Extranjero. Creado en 1701, enviaron al reverendo Thomas a Carolina en 1702. Fue el tercer misionero enviado a Estados Unidos y sirvió a la gente del río Cooper desde Goose Creek hasta Pompion Hill, estableciendo su hogar en Silk Hope, la plantación de el gobernador, Sir Nathaniel Johnson. Al escribir desde el "Estudio de Sir N. Johnson" en 1705 a la Sociedad en Londres, el Sr. Thomas dijo: "Aquí hay una iglesia ya erigida desde mi llegada por la dirección peculiar y el cuidado religioso de Sir Nathaniel Johnson y a cargo de la parroquia . " Pompion Hill Chapel en el lado este del brazo este del río Cooper tomó su nombre de la plantación en el río que colindaba. La pronunciación local es Punkin, o como escribió el juez H. A. M. Smith "la ortografía contemporánea de Pumpkin es Pompion". La plantación se escribió como Ponkin Hill o Ponkinhill Plantation en algunas escrituras antes de que el nombre se extendiera para cubrir la extensión más grande de la plantación que fue agregada por el reverendo Thomas Hasell. Fue el primer rector de la parroquia de St. Thomas, nombrado en 1709 después de la creación de la parroquia en 1706. Se casó con Elizabeth Ashby, hija de John Ashby, la Segunda Cassique de la cercana Quinby Barony. Cuando el reverendo Sr. Hasell murió en 1744, había servido a la parroquia de St. Thomas y de las Capillas de Facilidad de Pompion Hill durante treinta y cinco años. La plantación Pompion Hill de 1540 acres fue heredada por su hijo mayor, Thomas Hasell. En 1750 fue comprado por Samuel Thomas, nieto del primer misionero SPG de ese nombre, y quien era yerno del Rev. Thomas Hasell, ya que Samuel Thomas, II, se había casado con Elizabeth Ashby, II. Antes de 1784, Pompion Hill Plantation se convirtió en propiedad de la parroquia, ya sea a través de la compra o regalo de Samuel Thomas. En años posteriores a 1823, Pompion Hill Plantation fue propiedad de Alfred Huger y su nombre fue cambiado a Longwood, y el nombre Pompion Hill se limitó al acantilado sobre el río de diez o doce acres en el que se encuentra la hermosa y antigua Capilla. (Información de: Nombres en Carolina del Sur por C.H. Neuffer, publicado por el Departamento de Inglés de Carolina del Sur, USC)

Cortesía del Departamento de Archivos e Historia de Carolina del Sur

Cortesía del Departamento de Archivos e Historia de Carolina del Sur

Thomas T. Waterman fotógrafo 1940 & # 8211 Imágenes e información de: The Library of Congress & # 8211 HABS Photo Collection

Thomas T. Waterman fotógrafo 1940 & # 8211 Imágenes e información de: The Library of Congress & # 8211 HABS Photo Collection


Historia de Wando II - Historia

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Geología, hidrogeología y potencial de biorremediación intrínseca en el sitio del Dockside II del Servicio de Parques Nacionales y áreas adyacentes, Charleston, Carolina del Sur, 1993-94

Enlaces

Abstracto

Área de estudio

Detalles adicionales de la publicación
Tipo de publicación Reporte
Subtipo de publicación Serie numerada de USGS
Título Geología, hidrogeología y potencial de biorremediación intrínseca en el sitio del Dockside II del Servicio de Parques Nacionales y áreas adyacentes, Charleston, Carolina del Sur, 1993-94
Título de la serie Informe de investigaciones sobre recursos hídricos
Número de serie 96-4170
DOI 10.3133 / wri964170
Edición -
Año de publicación 1996
Idioma INGLÉS
Editor Subdivisión de Servicios de Información del Servicio Geológico de EE. UU. [Distribuidor],
Oficina (s) colaboradora Centro de Ciencias del Agua del Atlántico Sur
Descripción viii, 69 pág. : ill., mapas 28 cm.
País Estados Unidos
Estado Carolina del Sur
Ciudad charlestón
Métricas analíticas de Google Página de métricas

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Colonias de Carolina

"Carolina fue llamada así por los franceses, en 1563 o 1564, en honor a Carlos IX, rey de Francia (Carolus en latín, que significa Carlos), bajo cuyo patrocinio se descubrió su costa.

El territorio así nombrado después incluía las tierras comprendidas entre los grados 30 y 36 de latitud norte, y se extendía desde el Océano Atlántico hasta el Pacífico. En 1663, este territorio definido fue cedido, por Carlos II, rey de Inglaterra, quien lo reclamó en virtud del descubrimiento de Cabot, a Lord Clarendon, Sir William Berkley, Sir George Carteret y otros cuatro con amplios poderes para asentarse y gobernar. eso.

Entre 1640 y 1650, antes de la concesión anterior a Clarendon y otros, los plantadores de Virginia habían comenzado un asentamiento cerca de la desembocadura del río Chowan, en la costa norte de Albemarle Sound. Este asentamiento fue colocado por el gobernador Berkley, de Virginia, bajo la superintendencia de William Drummond. La pequeña plantación recibió el nombre de la Colonia del condado de Albemarle, en honor al duque de Albemarle, uno de los propietarios.

En 1665, emigrantes de la isla de Barbados realizaron un segundo asentamiento permanente, cerca de la desembocadura del río Clarendon o Cape Fear. Esto fue llamado el Colonia del condado de Clarendon. Tenía una constitución similar con Virginia. Sir John Yeamans fue el primer gobernador. Ambos de los asentamientos anteriores, estaban dentro de los límites actuales de Carolina del Norte.

En 1670, se fundó una tercera colonia, llamada Colonia del condado de Carteret, después de Sir George Carteret. Los colonos fueron acompañados por el gobernador Sayle, quien previamente había explorado la costa. Los barcos que transportaban a los emigrantes entraron por primera vez en el puerto de Port Royal, cerca de Beaufort, pero, no estando contentos con el lugar, pronto se adentraron en el río Ashley y sentaron las bases de Charleston antiguo. En 1680, este asentamiento fue abandonado por Oyster Point, en el que se inició la actual ciudad de charlestón. Este fue el comienzo de Carolina del Sur.

Durante la administración del gobernador Sayle, se preparó una forma de gobierno para estas colonias, a petición del célebre Lord Shaftesbury, actuando en nombre de los propietarios, por el aún más célebre John Locke. Propuso un tribunal, para consistir. de los propietarios, uno de los cuales sería elegido presidente vitalicio también, una nobleza hereditaria y un parlamento, este último formado por los dos primeros y representantes de cada distrito. Todos debían reunirse en un apartamento y tener la misma voz. Este plan de gobierno mal elaborado y absurdo se intentó aplicar en la práctica, pero se consideró impracticable. En el condado de Albemarle, provocó una insurrección. Por lo tanto, se abandonó y se restauró el antiguo gobierno propietario.

En el año 1671, al morir el gobernador Sayle, sir John Yeamans, gobernador de Clarendon, fue designado para sucederlo. Como consecuencia de este evento, y la poca prosperidad de la colonia, principalmente derivada de la esterilidad de su suelo, los habitantes de este asentamiento posterior, en unos pocos años, se trasladó a la de Charleston, y los tres gobiernos, en consecuencia, se redujeron para dos. Al estar muy separados, los nombres distintivos de Carolina del Norte y del Sur comenzaron a usarse con respecto a ellos.

Colonia de Carolina del Norte

El progreso de Albemarle o la colonia de Carolina del Norte se retrasó durante mucho tiempo debido a las disensiones internas. Un estado insurreccional de los habitantes surgió de un intento de hacer cumplir el plan de gobierno del Sr. Locke y los impuestos eran enormes y las restricciones comerciales vergonzosas. En 1677, después de un intento de hacer cumplir las leyes de ingresos contra un contrabandista de Nueva Inglaterra, el pueblo se alzó contra el gobierno y encarceló al presidente de la colonia y a seis miembros del consejo y, habiendo hecho esto, asumió la prerrogativa de gobernar. ellos mismos.

En 1683, los propietarios enviaron a Seth Sothel, uno de ellos, esperando a través de él restaurar la tranquilidad y la alegría. Pero solo aumentó los trastornos existentes. Durante seis años, los habitantes soportaron su injusticia y opresión, y luego lo apresaron y, después de juzgarlo, lo desterraron de la colonia. Un historiador comentó una vez sobre Sothel, 'Los matices oscuros de su carácter no fueron aliviados por un solo rayo de virtud'.

Philip Ludwell, de Virginia, sucedió al infame y exigente Sothel y corrigió los males que había cometido. Bajo su mando, y su sucesor, Sir John Archdale, en 1695, cuáquero y hombre excelente, se restauró el orden en la colonia. Los emigrantes comenzaron a llegar en masa y, en el transcurso de algunos años, se establecieron varias otras partes del territorio. Los propietarios les hicieron asignaciones liberales de tierras, y aquí muchos, que habían huido de las persecuciones religiosas o de las devastaciones de la guerra en tierras extranjeras, encontraron un asilo pacífico y agradecido. Esto fue particularmente cierto para una compañía de protestantes franceses, que llegaron en 1707 y se establecieron en el río Trento, un brazo del Neuse, y de un gran número de alemanes, que huyeron de la persecución en 1710, y se plantaron en ese mismo lugar. parte de la provincia.

But the inhabitants of this colony were destined soon to experience a sad, and, to many, a fatal calamity. The Indian tribes on the seacoast, once numerous and powerful, were fast dwindling before the enterprise of the colonists. To the more inland tribes, especially the Tuscaroras and the Corees, this was an indication not to be mistaken that the days of their prosperity were fast numbering. Grieved and exasperated at the prospect before them, they now combined with other tribes to utterly exterminate the new settlers. This purpose they attempted to carry into effect and so successful were they, that in one night, October 2nd, 1711, they massacred one hundred and thirty persons belonging to the settlements along the Roanoke River and Pamlico Sound.

A few colonists, escaping, hastened to South Carolina for assistance. Governor Craven immediately dispatched to their aid nearly a thousand men, under Colonel Barnwell. On his arrival, he defeated the enemy in several actions and, at length, pursued them to their fortified town, which capitulated, and peace was
concluded.

But it proved of short duration. The Indians renewed their hostilities, and the assistance of the southern colony was again involved. In response, Colonel Moore set out for the hostile territory, with a competent force &mdash forty white men and eight-hundred friendly Indians. They reduced the fort of the Tuscaroras, and with it took eight hundred prisoners. Broken and disheartened by this defeat, the tribe, in 1713, migrated north, and became the sixth nation of the great Iroquois Confederacy &mdash sometimes called the Five, and after this event, the Six Nations. In 1715, a treaty was concluded with the Corees.

In 1719, the proprietary government, which had continued from the settlement of the colony until now, was terminated in consequence of difficulties between the inhabitants and the proprietors. Their charter was vacated by the crown, and royal government substituted. Ten years after in 1729, the proprietors surrendered their right to the government, and interest in the soil, to the king upon which the province was divided into North and. South Carolina, and their governors and councils were appointed by the crown.

South Carolina Colony

The foundation of the Carteret or Southern Colony, was laid by Governor Sayle and emigrants accompanying him, in the settlement of Old Charleston, in 1670. Sayle fell victim to some disease of the climate early in the following year, and Sir John Yeamans, then Governor of Clarendon Colony, was appointed his successor. On being transferred, he drew after him a considerable portion of the latter colony.

The progress of the southern colony was, from the commencement, more rapid than the northern. Several circumstances contributed to this. The soil was more feasible and fertile. Many Dutch families from New York, dissatisfied with the transfer of their home to the English, in 1664, were ready to find a home here and, in 1671, shiploads of them were transported by the proprietors to Carolina, free of expense, and liberal grants of land were made to them. They chiefly concentrated at a place called Jamestown, west of the Ashley River, where they were, from time to time, enforced by emigrants from Holland. The profanity and licentiousness of the court of Charles II, also, drove many Puritan refugees across the Atlantic, a considerable number of whom settled in Carolina.

In 1680, the people of Old Charleston, attracted by the more pleasant location of a point of land between thee rivers Ashley and Cooper, called Oyster Point, removed there, and there laid the foundation of the present City of Charleston, which, from that time, has had the honor of being the capital of the colony and state.

They were, however, immediately afterward, annoyed, and the safety of the place even endangered, by the hostile and predatory conduct of the Westoes, a powerful tribe of Indians in the neighborhood. Retaliatory measures became necessary numbers of the Indians were shot and others, who were captured, were sent into slavery in the West Indies. Fortunately, peace was made with them the following year.

In 1686, soon after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, by Louis XIV, a large number of Huguenots, or French Protestants, came over, and settled in the colony. To the English settlers, who were Episcopal, these refugees being of so different a faith, were by no means welcome and they were quite disposed to drive them from the colony, notwithstanding the latter had been introduced by the proprietors under an assurance of enjoying the rights of citizenship.

About this time, James Colleton, a brother of Sir John, was appointed governor, under an expectation that he would be able to reduce the people to a proper submission to proprietary authority, to which they had for a long time seemed averse. But his arbitrary conduct, in excluding refractory members from the colonial assembly, and in attempting to collect rents claimed by the proprietors as due, drove the people to open resistance. The public records were seized, the colonial secretary imprisoned, the governor defied, and, at length, banished from the colony.

In 1690, that notable person, Seth Sothel, who, for his corrupt conduct, had been driven from North Carolina in disgrace, appeared in the province, and was allowed by the people to assume the government. But, impelled by his avarice to acts of meanness and oppression, as formerly at the expiration of two years he was banished from the colony. Next, Philip Ludwell was appointed by the proprietors as the person to teach the South Carolinians submission and good manner but they were too turbulent, as he thought, and he became glad, at no distant day, to retire.

In 1695, John Archdale, the Quaker, was appointed governor, with power to redress all grievances. The people had long complained against their rulers, and had quarreled among themselves. Archdale, by a wise and conciliatory course, restored harmony, and removed the causes of civil dissatisfaction. He introduced a more republican form of government, thus restoring to the people rights and privileges which had been monopolized by the proprietors, or their agents.

One difficulty, however, still remained, and which he was compelled to leave to the 'softening influence of time' to remove. This was the jealousy and antipathy already alluded to, of the English Episcopalians against the French Protestants. The latter, it was contended, could not legally hold real estate in the colony that the French ministers could not lawfully solemnize marriages and that the children of the refugees must be debarred inheriting the property of their fathers.

But these animosities and differences found an end. When, at length, the inoffensive and even exemplary lives of these exiles, were observed by the English, and also their uniform and liberal efforts to sustain and advance the interests of the colony, prejudice and opposition yielded and, in a few years, the colonial assembly gladly extended to them all the rights of citizens and freemen.

Soon after the declaration of war in 1702, by England against France and Spain, called Queen Anne's War, Governor Moore proposed to the assembly of the colony an expedition against the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, in Florida. To this the more considerate of the assembly were opposed but, the enterprise being approved by a majority, nearly ten thousand dollars were appropriated for the object, and twelve hundred troops raised, one half of whom were Indians. With the forces above named, and some merchant vessels impressed as transports, Governor Moore sailed for St. Augustine. The design for Colonel Daniel, an enterprising officer, was to proceed by the inland passage, and then attack the town by land, with a party of militia and Indians while Moore was to proceed by sea, and take possession of the harbor. Daniel advanced against the town, entered and plundered it, before the governor's arrival. The Spaniards, however, retired to the castle, with their principal riches, and with provisions for four months.

The governor, on his arrival, could effect nothing, for want of artillery. In this emergency, Daniel was dispatched to Jamaica for cannon, mortars, etc. During his absence, two large Spanish ships appearing off the harbor, Governor Moore hastily raised the siege, abandoned his shipping, and made a precipitate retreat into Carolina. Colonel Daniel, having no intelligence that the siege had been raised, on his return, stood in for the harbor, and narrowly escaped the ships of the enemy. In consequence of this rash and unfortunate enterprise, the colony was loaded with a debt of nearly thirty thousand dollars, which gave rise to the first paper currency in Carolina, and was the means of filling the colony with dissension and tumult.

The failure of this expedition was soon after, in a measure, compensated by a successful war with the Appalachian Indians, who, in consequence of their connection with the Spaniards, became insolent and hostile. Governor Moore, with a body of white men and Indian allies, marched into the heart of their country, and compelled them to submit to the English. All the towns of the tribes between the rivers Altamaha and Savannah were burnt, and between six hundred and eight hundred Indians were made prisoners.

In 1704, Sir Nathaniel Johnson succeeded Governor Moore and now, under his influence, a long-cherished object of the proprietors was accomplished. This was the establishment of the Church of England forms of worship as the religion of the province, and the exclusion of dissenters from all participation in the government. But, in 1706, these laws of exclusion or disfranchisement were repealed, by direction of the English Parliament, which decided that they were inconsistent with the laws of England. But the acts establishing the Church of England religion continued in force, until they were abrogated by the American Revolution.

In 1706, while yet Queen Anne's War continued, a French and Spanish squadron, consisting of a French frigate and four armed sloops, appeared before Charleston, with a design of annexing Carolina to Florida but, by the prompt and energetic efforts of the governor, seconded by Colonel Rhett and the inhabitants, this issue was averted. When, at length, the enemy had passed the bar, he sent a summons to the governor to surrender. Four hours were allowed him to return his answer. But the governor informed the messenger that he did not wish one minute. On the reception of this answer, the enemy seemed to hesitate, and attempted nothing that day.

The day succeeding, a party of the enemy, landing on James Island, burnt a village by the river's side. Another party landed at Wando Neck. The next day both these parties were dislodged the latter party being surprised, and nearly all killed or taken prisoner.

This success so animated the Carolinians, that it was determined to attack the enemy by sea. This was attempted with a force of six vessels, under command of Rhett but, on his appearance, the enemy weighed anchor, and precipitately fled.

In 1715, the province came near the verge of ruin, by reason of a combination of the Yamassees and other Indian tribes&mdashstretching from Cape Fear to Florida&mdashagainst them. The 15th of April 1715, was fixed upon as the day of their general destruction. Owing, however, to the wisdom, dispatch and firmness of Governor Craven, and the blessing of Providence, the calamity was, in a measure, averted, and the colonies saved, though at the expense during the war, of near four hundred of the inhabitants. The Yamassees were expelled from the province, and took refuge among the Spaniards in Florida.

In 1719, the people of Carolina, having been long disgusted with the management of the proprietors, were resolved, at all hazards, to execute their own laws, and defend the rights of the province. A subscription to this effect was drawn up, and generally signed. On the meeting of the assembly, a committee was sent with this subscription to the governor, Robert Johnson, requesting him to accept the government of the province, under the king, instead of the proprietors. Upon Johnson's refusal, the assembly chose Colonel James Moore governor, under the crown and on the 21st of December, 1719, the convention and militia marched to Charleston fort, and proclaimed Moore governor, in his majesty's name.

The Carolinians, having thus assumed the government, in behalf of the king, referred their complaints to the royal ear. On a hearing of the case, the privy council adjudged that the proprietors had forfeited their charter. From this time, therefore, the colony was taken under the royal protection, under which it continued until the Revolution. This change was followed, in 1729, by another, nearly as important. This was an agreement, between the proprietors and the crown, that the former should surrender to the crown their right and interest, both to the government and soil, for the sum of seventeen thousand five hundred pounds sterling. This agreement being carried into effect, the province was divided into North and South Carolina, each province having a distinct governor, under the crown of England.

Fuente: A History of the United States, by Charles A. Goodrich, 1857


Barbados and the Roots of Carolina, Part 1

If you pick up any book about the origins of South Carolina in the late 1600s, you’ll be sure to find references to the island of Barbados and the great influence it exerted on our early history. Nearly 350 years later, in November 2017, a number of Lowcountry residents are collaborating with officials in Barbados to commemorate the cultural ties that continue to bind our two communities together. The Barbados and Carolina Legacy Foundation, founded by Bajan native Rhoda Green, is leading a coterie of Carolinians to Bimshire (as some natives call the island) this month to celebrate our shared past. I’ll be traveling along with the Charleston delegation, and I look forward to sharing the fruits of my journey when I return.

In preparation for my trip, I’ve been reading a lot and searching for clues to answer this fundamental question: How exactly did Barbados influence the early history of South Carolina? If you peruse a few of the many books and articles written about this topic, you’ll find discussions of a number of specific connections. The Charleston single house, for example, is often described as being a local interpretation of a Barbadian (or Bajan) predecessor. The drinking culture of early Charleston has been described as an extension of the influence of the Bajan rum industry. Several of the early governors and major landowners of colonial Carolina came here from Barbados. Some of South Carolina’s earliest laws for the governing of African slaves were based on legal precedents established in Barbados. The local language we call Gullah, created by the enslaved Africans who lived along the coast of South Carolina, is remarkably similar to the Afro-Barbadian dialect known as Bajan.

After reading about such connections between Barbados and early South Carolina, I have to admit that I still felt a bit unsatisfied. The cultural connections I’ve just described are legitimate, bona fide examples of the historical links between our two communities, but there has to be more to the story. After further reading, digging into the early history of that Caribbean island, however, I found a theme that strikes me as a deeper, more fundamental link between Barbados and Carolina. To illustrate my point, we’ll need to travel back to the early days of European exploration in the New World, and try to understand how the small island of Barbados fits into the larger historic context of this age of discovery.

Barbados is the easternmost island of the Caribbean or West Indian Islands. It contains approximately 166 square miles of land, or just over 106,000 acres. That makes the island of Barbados approximately one-tenth the size of Charleston County, or twice the size of John’s Island. That may be difficult to visualize, so here’s another way to think about it: the pear-shaped island of Barbados is approximately 21 miles long and 14 miles across at its widest point.

European settlement of Barbados began in the 1490s, when Spanish and Portuguese explorers first visited the island. There they found a population of native Amerindians, but did not attempt to create a permanent settlement. Throughout the sixteenth century, Spanish colonists dominated the land of Central America and the islands of the Caribbean Sea, while Portuguese colonists established a vast sugar empire in Brazil in South America.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, England was poised to launch its first permanent colonies in the New World. The settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, was established in 1607, followed by a permanent settlement in Bermuda in 1609. In 1623 English settlers claimed part of the island of St. Christopher (St. Kitts), in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, just a bit north of Barbados. French settlers claimed the other half of St. Kitts in 1625, leading to years of conflict, so the English kept searching for Caribbean islands to call their own. Also in 1625, English explorers landed at Barbados, found it completely deserted, and claimed the island for their king.

Two years later, in 1627, a small band of about fifty white men and perhaps ten African slaves established the first permanent English settlement on Barbados. Over the next several decades, the island served as the base for other English settlements in the Caribbean, including Nevis in 1628, Antigua in 1632, and then a number of other small islands. As England’s first solid foothold in the West Indies, Barbados quickly became a major destination for adventuring merchants and investors, as well as white indentured servants and exiled criminals. By the early 1640s, when the colony was not quite twenty years old, Barbados was home to approximately 30,000 people, mostly men, making it the most densely populated English-speaking settlement outside of London.

In this crowded society, scores of urban merchants traded with neighboring ports while hundreds of middling landowners cultivated relatively small tracts of lands. They grew tobacco, cotton, indigo, and ginger for export, and raised cattle and provision crops to feed themselves. Indentured white servants, mostly poor Irish, did the bulk of the labor, but Barbados in the early 1640s was also home to nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans, whom the English had purchased through Dutch merchants. English colonists first embraced slavery in Virginia in 1619, but it was not yet the dominant form of labor in their New World settlements. In Virginia in 1650, for example, the population demographics were nearly identical to that of 1640s Barbados: approximately 30,000 whites and nearly 1,000 enslaved Africans.

During its first twenty years of English occupation, Barbados was not a financial success. Tobacco prices declined as the quantity and quality of the Virginia product surpassed Caribbean exports. French and Spanish indigo dominated European markets, and so the English dye faced stiff competition. In response to these conditions, settlers began to stream away from Barbados in search of new opportunities in places like Virginia and New England.

As Barbados struggled to find its niche in the world in the early 1640s, a few planters began experimenting with the cultivation of sugar cane. The Portuguese in Brazil had already turned sugar cane production into an extremely profitable business, using Dutch merchants to market sugar and sugar by-products to European customers who couldn’t get enough of the sweet stuff. Trying to emulate their neighbors, English planters in Barbados started growing the cane and experimenting with the laborious process of converting it into sugar products. At first the results were not promising. The quantity was too small to be profitable, and the quality of their sugar was inferior to that produced by the Portuguese. Within a few years of experimentation, however, and with the important help of Dutch merchants and Sephardic Jews who bridged the gap between Portuguese, Dutch, and English trade networks, Barbadian planters soon perfected their sugar production techniques.

By the end of the 1640s, Barbados was on the cusp of an explosion of sugar production. Planters had mastered both the cultivation of the cane and the techniques of processing it into sugar, molasses, and rumbullion (rum), alias “kill-divil.” The last step in this expansion was to increase production dramatically, a step that would require a larger labor force. In sixteenth-century Brazil, Portuguese planters created an empire of sugar cane by importing large numbers of enslaved Africans. Around the year 1650, Barbadian planters decided to follow a similar path. Within a decade, the island had been radically transformed. Wealthy planters bought out their less-affluent neighbors to create a smaller number of farms, or plantations, cultivating larger tracts of land. Simultaneously, they purchased large numbers of Africans through Dutch merchants, effectively displacing thousands of poor white laborers. By 1660, the population of Barbados stood at approximately 26,000 whites, a decline of a several thousand people since the early 1640s. Conversely, the number of enslaved people of African descent increased from less than 1,000 people around 1640 to approximately 27,000 in 1660.

The transformation of the Barbadian economy in the mid-1600s was a turning point in that island’s history, but it also had important ramifications for the rest of the Caribbean and mainland North America as well. By investing a large amount of capital into large-scale agricultural ventures that focused on a single crop, combined with an emphasis on the use of forced African labor, Barbadian planters were creating a new mode of capitalism in the English-speaking world. The business of exploitative factory farming, as we might call it, produced incredible profits for a relatively small number of investors, while condemning a disproportionately large number of people to a life of labor and poverty. The Spanish and Portuguese had already embarked down this economic road in South America, of course, but for the English nation this was a bold new step that would have long and painful repercussions.

The rapid economic success of Barbados between the late 1640s and the early 1660s, what we might call the Great Sugar Rush, also created a series of immediate challenges for the small island. The great potential for profits drove planters to clear more land to grow more sugar cane and import ever more Africans to do the work. As a result of these changes, Barbadians found it increasingly difficult to sustain their own population. There were far more mouths to feed, but fewer acres of land dedicated to cattle grazing and the cultivation of provisions like wheat and peas. As forests were cleared to create new cane fields, the island grew increasingly desperate for essential wood products like lumber for houses, shingles for roofs, staves for barrels, and firewood to boil the cane juice into sugar and rum. To maintain the fabulously profitable economic dynamo it had recently created, Barbados desperately needed to expand.

The Barbadian model of sugar production enticed English adventurers to carry the business to the other English possessions in the Caribbean, including Antigua, St. Kitt’s, and Nevis. These were small islands with limited resources, however, so they alone could not satisfy the demand for land, wood products, and provisions. In 1655 England captured the much larger island of Jamaica from the Spanish, a feat that promised much needed relief for the strained Barbadian resources. The Jamaican soil proved to be less fertile than that of Barbados, however, and the island’s extensive mountains provided ample shelter to African slaves seeking to escape a life of bondage. In the late 1600s the Jamaican economy developed a sort of auxiliary of the Barbadian sugar model, but the collective resources of the larger island were not sufficient to solve the smaller island’s lingering challenges.

What Barbados merchants and planters of the early 1660s ideally wanted was a cheap, limitless supply of timber for wood products and land for cattle grazing and planting provision crops. Such needs could only be found on the mainland, perhaps, and England’s long, turbulent era of Civil War, Commonwealth, and Protectorate, 1642–1659, precluded the creation of any new mainland colonies in North America. With the restoration of the English monarchy under Charles II in 1660, however, the leading figures of Barbados saw an opportunity to press the new king for assistance in expanding their respective fortunes. Conversations commenced between Barbadians and their allies in the new English government about potential investments and profit schemes. In the spring of 1663, these private negotiations bore fruit in the Royal charter granted by Charles II to a group of eight investors, styled Lords Proprietors, for the vast and verdant new colony called Carolina.

In short, the historical connection between Barbados and Carolina is far deeper than a handful of influential colonists, or an architectural form, or a style of cuisine, or a dialect. Barbados, or more precisely the spirit of late-seventeenth-century Barbados, was encoded in the DNA of Carolina from the moment this colony was conceived. Tune in next week, when we’ll continue this conversation by investigating some of the features of early South Carolina that we can identify as family traits inherited from Barbados.


History of Wando II - History

For most of its history Korea was an independent kingdom, or at least an autonomous kingdom under Chinese influence. This came to an end in 1910 when Japan annexed all of Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945 the 38° parallel was established as the dividing line between U.S. and Soviet zones of occupation, and in 1948 separate civil administrations were established in the two halves of the country. The Korean War (1950-53) ended in a draw with the armistice line falling close to the prewar 38° line. The Republic of Korea (ROK), commonly called South Korea, occupies the Korean peninsula south of the armistice line.

This page covers lighthouses of the northern section of the island county of Wando located off South Korea's southwest coast. Wando is a county of Jeollanam Province in the region of southwestern Korea formerly known known as Jeolla or Cholla. There is another page for the southern islands of the county. Also included on this page are several lighthouses of Jangheung County and Gangjin County, which are on the mainland facing Wando.

In 2000 South Korea adopted a Revised Romanization System to replace systems formerly used in the West. In the Revised System, the word for a lighthouse is deungdae ( 등대 ) dan (formerly broncearse) is a cape, seom (som) o hacer (para) is an island, soy o amseog is a rock, hombre is a bay, and hang is a harbor. Some place names may be more familiar to Westerners in the spellings of older systems.

Navigational aids in the ROK are regulated by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF). Most of the lights on this page are maintained by the Mokpo Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration , but several of the lights in the southeastern part of the Wando archipelago are maintained by the Yeosu Regional Oceans and Fisheries Administration.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights . Admiralty numbers are from volume M of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals . U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources Port of Mokpo - Lighthouses Photos and information in English for the major lighthouses of the area. World of Lighthouses - South Korea Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net. Kiso's Lighthouses - Korea Photos posted by a Japanese lighthouse fan. Online List of Lights - Korea Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Navionics Charts Navigation chart for Wando.


East Breakwater Light, Wando, September 2009
Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 사비오 (Sabio)

Northeastern Wando County Lighthouses


Geumdangdo Light, Geumdang District
ex-Daum.net Creative Commons photo by 고기잡는어부


Seopdo Light, Geomildo District
Yeosu Regional Port Administration photo

Dojang Hang Detached Breakwater Lights, Geomildo District, October 2018
Google Maps photo by Hunseok Shin

Jangheung County Lighthouses

Hoejin District Lighthouses Hoejin Hang Breakwater East End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) four yellow flashes every 8 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is yellow. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Hoejin is a mainland port opposite the Wando islands. Located at the northeast end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.78 NGA 17303.2. Hoejin Hang Breakwater West End 2007. Active focal plane 11 m (36 ft) red flash every 4 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower. Entire lighthouse is red. A photo of the two breakwater lighthouses is available and Google has a satellite view . Located at the southwest end of the detached breakwater of Hoejin harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty M4281.79 NGA 17303.3..

Gangjin County Lighthouses


West Breakwater Light, Maryang Hang, May 2020
Google Maps photo by Hyunyong Kim

Northwestern Wando County Lighthouses


Wando Hang Light, Wando, August 2019
Google Maps photo by Banana

Information available on lost lighthouses:

  • Wando Tower, Wando, is a 76 m (250 ft) observation tower it is not listed as an aid to navigation. The tower appears the photo of the Wando East Breakwater Light at the top of this page and Google has a satellite view.

Posted January 9, 2008. Lighthouses: 45. Checked and revised February 10, 2021. Site copyright 2021 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


The Enduring Fascination – And Challenge – Of World War II

Earl Ofari Hutchinson is the author of multiple books on race and politics in America, a military history analyst specializing in World War II, and a member of the Society for Military History. His books include the trilogy on the Obama Years: The Obama Legacy, How Obama Governed The Year of Crisis and Challenge, y How Obama Won. His most recent books are The Trump Challenge to Black America and From King to Obama: Witness to a Turbulent History. Su How World War II Changed America will be released in August, 2021.

More than seven decades after the end of World War II, why are we still so fascinated by it? On a primal level, World War II is the complete package. Violence, action, adventure, romance, drama, death defying feats, passions, race, gender, new inventions, crisis decision making, colorful personalities and leaders, evil personalities and leaders, horror, heroism, and a triumphant ending. It doesn&rsquot get any better (or worse) in the realm of human experience.

World War II also serves to remind us what happens when a country is caught flatfooted and unprepared to respond to a crisis. The Pearl Harbor attack made clear that preparedness for a crisis is paramount. Failure to learn that lesson almost always leads to disaster. The 9/11 attack in 2001, first. Then twenty years after, the nation&rsquos failure to prepare and have plans in place to combat the COVID Pandemic. In both cases, the U.S. paid a terrible price for its lack of preparedness as it did with Pearl Harbor.

It&rsquos simplistic to say that World War II is a case of wanting to hang onto a feel-good, nostalgic past triumph. History is never past. It continues to repeat itself in many ways, and most importantly in many of the eternal issues--war and peace, violence and non-violence, authoritarian rule and democratic government, conservative and liberal ideology, civil liberties and national security, and terrorism and intervention.

Author and World War II expert Michael Bess says the war continues to challenge us to never lose sight of the nation&rsquos principles and values:

The issue raised here is a vital one for any democratic society: how to balance a commitment to constitutional rights and liberties with the demands of security in wartime. The lesson of World War II, in this regard, is clear: take the long view don&rsquot get lost in the panic of the moment. In 1942, in the name of national security, we Americans seized a racially demarcated subset of our citizenry and threw them in the slammer. In both cases, the justification was the same: We are at war. We have to do this in order to survive. But this turned out not to be true. Not a single case of Japanese-American subversion was ever prosecuted during World War II.

History should be approached as a living, breathing organic day-to-day experience. The events of the past that continually influence, shape, and contain important lessons for the present and the future are perpetually invaluable. One of my favorites is nicely summed up on the University of People website:

Learn from the past and notice clear warning signs. We learn from past atrocities against groups of people, genocides, wars, and attacks. Through this collective suffering, we have learned to pay attention to the warning signs leading up to such atrocities. Society has been able to take these warning signs and fight against them when they see them in the present day. Knowing what events led up to these various wars helps us better influence our future.

Do &ldquogenocide,&rdquo, &ldquoatrocities,&rdquo, &ldquowars,&rdquo, &ldquoattacks,&rdquo &ldquocollective suffering,&rdquo &ldquowarning signs,&rdquo &ldquofight against them,&rdquo or &ldquobetter influence our future,&rdquo sound familiar? The message is to be forewarned is to be forearmed. That&rsquos the purpose of knowing and taking to heart the great lessons of, and from, the past. In the end the past is the present and the future.

Here are three immediate examples that painfully underscore that. The U.S. stamped an everlasting stain on its claim to be the global champion of democracy when it interned 120,000 Japanese Americans during the war. The interned not only committed no crime but were productive citizens that made integral contributions to the nation in agriculture, trade, and the manufacturing industries.

The U.S. learned from that heinous act. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attack, fear and hysteria did not run rampant in the nation. There was no wholesale lock-up of Muslims in the country under the guise that they posed a threat to national security. Nearly two decades later, then President Trump&rsquos demand to exclude citizens from nations deemed &ldquoterrorist&rdquo from entrance into the U.S. ignited major resistance and legal challenges. It was soon modified and then scrapped. We learned again.

There were assorted identifiable white nationalist, supremacist and neo-Nazi supporters involved in the violence during the Capitol takeover January 6, 2021. The reaction from the government, media and public was swift condemnation, mass arrests, and prosecutions of the perpetrators. Congressional hearings were held that decried the laxity of response and ignoring intelligence warnings of possible violence. There would be no Reichstag type takeover here.

There is the always public tremor over the use of atomic power. When the Biden administration in April 2021 approved a plan to bankroll a multibillion-dollar project in New Mexico to manufacture key components for the nation&rsquos nuclear arsenal, antinuclear and environmental watchdog groups sprang into action. They threatened lawsuits, court action, and public protests over the plan.

I could name many more examples of how World War II hold lessons for the present.

The monumental destruction World War II wreaked should never blind us to the fact that the war was first and foremost a major historical event. As with all major historical events, they happen in a continuum of time and place. As such, they have important social, political, and economic consequences long after their end. En What is History?, eminent historian E.H. Carr ruminated at length about the inseparable linkage between the past and the present, &ldquoIt is at one the justification and the explanation of history that the past throws light on the future, and the future throws light on the past.&rdquo

Carr goes further. He insists that history has value only when it sheds light on the present and future, &ldquoHistory establishes meaning and objectivity only when it establishes a coherent relation between past and future.&rdquo

America&rsquos master oral history chronicler Studs Terkel published many books in which regular folk told their stories about just about every aspect of American life. There was no surprise then that the Good War had the sledgehammer impact on the public it did when it was released in 1984.

The stories the men and women of World War II told had instant and moving resonance for legions of readers born years, even decades, after the war. They could identify with the human emotions and drama that poured forth in their remembrances. It was the epitome of living history. It was no accident in May 2021, thirty-seven years afterLa buena guerra, was published, and thirty-six years after it won a Pulitzer Prize, the book still ranked among the top 20 bestsellers in two non-fiction categories on Amazonas.

This literally speaks volumes why World War II, the good war, still fascinates us. And undoubtedly will continue to.


A History of the College’s Land

The story of the land that encompasses the College or Charleston campus reflects the history of the city.

The peninsula of Charleston was home to Native Americans long before the first permanent European settlers arrived in 1670. As soon as they entered the harbor, the first settlers saw a large oyster midden, the mounds of discarded oyster shells left by the indigenous people. (They named that area White Point, the site for White Point Garden today.) The tribes in the area included the Wando and the Etiwan. Relations between natives and newcomers started out equitably, but the sad tragedy of native displacement by the Europeans (through enslavement, conflict and disease) that is part of American history also played out here.

No one owned the lands, until they were claimed by England’s King Charles II, who granted them to the Lords Proprietors, who, in turn, granted them to others. What is now our campus was beyond the limits of Charles Towne, which was moved from its original location at Albermarle Point, west of the Ashley River, to the peninsula in 1680. Our land, granted first to Henry Hughes in the 1670s, passed to John Coming. In 1698, a part of that parcel, containing the core of the campus, was conveyed by Coming’s widow, Affra Harleston Coming, to the Pinckney family. (The names of Coming St., which runs through campus, and Harleston Village, just west of it, reflect this early history.) In 1724, a Pinckney heir sold some of this land to the Commissioners of the Free School, making public education the land’s now fulfilled destiny. The large tract of land bounded to the north on a marsh (now Calhoun St.between St. Philip and Coming streets, an area that still floods occasionally) and southerly (south of present-day George St.) on a tract donated by Affra Harleston Coming to St. Philip’s Church. (This gave rise to other street names in the neighborhood – St. Philip and Glebe – the latter word meaning property of a church.) Some of the first structures on the land in the Colonial era were wooden barracks, soon replaced by two brick barracks. The barracks were used in the American Revolution by the Second SC Regiment under William Moultrie. Plats indicate that those buildings were in the approximate area of what is now Cistern Yard.

The College’s first president Bishop Robert Smith, who lived nearby, was not just a clergyman, but a plantation owner whose wealth came from enslaved people who worked his land. (Almost all early endowments came from similar sources: Benjamin Smith, the first contributor to the College, no relation to Robert Smith, was a wealthy slave and plantation owner, as well, and Miles Brewton, another donor, was a slave trader.) President Smith, who would own more than 200 human beings at his death in 1801, was in the position to advance the struggling College funds to repair the barracks classrooms records also reveal that people he enslaved worked on related projects, for which he billed the institution. To pay off those debts after his death, the College trustees, mostly wealthy slave owners themselves, cut Green Street (now Green Way, converted to a pedestrian mall in the 1970s) through its lands, attempting to rent lots along it. The College’s land was now quartered into four approximately equal squares or blocks, the extreme outer limits being Boundary (now Calhoun), St. Philip, George and Coming streets, with College Street running north/south through the parcel, and Green Street running east/west through it. In 1817, the College was forced to sell most of its land to satisfy the debt, restricting its precincts to the southeast square of land bounded by George, College, Green and St. Philip streets.

On these lands, fringing the compact campus, rose houses, large and small, of men and women white and black, free and enslaved, many of whom could not legally attend the school whose student body consisted mostly of the white slave-owning elite. (There were religious, educational civic buildings and graveyards in the neighborhood, too.) As the College grew and eventually became state supported in the 20th century, it began to acquire more of the surrounding property. Many buildings were torn down, some were saved, and others relocated. After all these changes, the College of Charleston now includes the approximate parcel it possessed at its founding, and more: the campus now extends north of Calhoun Street, east of St. Philip Street, across Coming Street and as far south as Wentworth Street. There are other non-contiguous College lands on the peninsula and others across both the Ashley and Cooper Rivers.

Within the over 30 acres of the downtown campus are innumerable stories to discover.


Ver el vídeo: WANDO. UMA CARREIRA BEM SUCEDIDA E NOS DEIXOU DE UMA FORMA QUE NINGUÉM ESPERAVA (Noviembre 2021).